Duplicate Address Detection. IPv6 automatically uses this process to ensure that no duplicate IP addresses exist. For more information, see Duplicate Address Detection in the ExtremeXOS 21.1 User Guide.


An abbreviation for the power ratio in decibels (dB) of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt.


Data Center Bridging is a set of IEEE 802.1Q extensions to standard Ethernet, that provide an operational framework for unifying Local Area Networks (LAN), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and Inter-Process Communication (IPC) traffic between switches and endpoints onto a single transport layer.


The Data Center Bridging eXchange protocol is used by DCB devices to exchange DCB configuration information with directly connected peers.

default encapsulation mode

In STP, default encapsulation allows you to specify the type of BPDU encapsulation to use for all ports added to a given STPD, not just to one individual port. The encapsulation modes are:
  • 802.1d—This mode is used for backward compatibility with previous STP versions and for compatibility with third-party switches using IEEE standard 802.1d.
  • EMISTP—Extreme Multiple Instance Spanning Tree Protocol (EMISTP) mode is an extension of STP that allows a physical port to belong to multiple STPDs by assigning the port to multiple VLANs.
  • PVST+—This mode implements PVST+ in compatibility with third-party switches running this version of STP.

designated port

In STP, the designated port provides the shortest path connection to the root bridge for the attached LAN segment. Each LAN segment has only one designated port.

destination address

The IP or MAC address of the device that is to receive the packet.

Device Manager

The Device Manager is an Extreme Networks-proprietary process that runs on every node and is responsible for monitoring and controlling all of the devices in the system. The Device Manager is useful for system redundancy.

device server

A specialized, network-based hardware device designed to perform a single or specialized set of server functions. Print servers, terminal servers, remote access servers, and network time servers are examples of device servers.


Don't fragment bit. This is the don't fragment bit carried in the flags field of the IP header that indicates that the packet should not be fragmented. The remote host will return ICMP notifications if the packet had to be split anyway, and these are used in MTU discovery.


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. DHCP allows network administrators to centrally manage and automate the assignment of IP addresses on the corporate network. DHCP sends a new IP address when a computer is plugged into a different place in the network. The protocol supports static or dynamic IP addresses and can dynamically reconfigure networks in which there are more computers than there are available IP addresses.


Differentiated Services. Defined in RFC 2474 and 2475, DiffServ is an architecture for implementing scalable service differentiation in the Internet. Each IP header has a DiffServ (DS) field, formerly known as the Type of Service (TOS) field. The value in this field defines the QoS priority the packet will have throughout the network by dictating the forwarding treatment given to the packet at each node.

DiffServ is a flexible architecture that allows for either end-to-end QoS or intra-domain QoS by implementing complex classification and mapping functions at the network boundary or access points. In the Extreme Networks implementation, you can configure the desired QoS by replacing or mapping the values in the DS field to egress queues that are assigned varying priorities and bandwidths.

directory agent (DA)

A method of organizing and locating the resources (such as printers, disk drives, databases, e-mail directories, and schedulers) in a network. Using SLP, networking applications can discover the existence, location and configuration of networked devices. With Service Location Protocol, client applications are 'User Agents' and services are advertised by 'Service Agents'.

The User Agent issues a multicast 'Service Request' (SrvRqst) on behalf of the client application, specifying the services required. The User Agent will receive a Service Reply (SrvRply) specifying the location of all services in the network which satisfy the request. 
For larger networks, a third entity, called a 'Directory Agent', receives registrations from all available Service Agents. A User Agent sends a unicast request for services to a Directory Agent (if there is one) rather than to a Service Agent.
 (SLP version 2, RFC 2608, updating RFC 2165)

diversity antenna and receiver

The AP has two antennae. Receive diversity refers to the ability of the AP to provide better service to a device by receiving from the user on which ever of the two antennae is receiving the cleanest signal. Transmit diversity refers to the ability of the AP to use its two antenna to transmit on a specific antenna only, or on a alternate antennae. The antennae are called diversity antennae because of this capability of the pair.


Domain Name Server. This system is used to translate domain names to IP addresses. Although the Internet is based on IP addresses, names are easier to remember and work with. All these names must be translated back to the actual IP address and the DNS servers do so.


In CFM, a maintenance domain is the network, or part of the network, that belongs to a single administration for which connectivity faults are managed.

DoS attack

Denial of Service attacks occur when a critical network or computing resource is overwhelmed so that legitimate requests for service cannot succeed. In its simplest form, a DoS attack is indistinguishable from normal heavy traffic. ExtremeXOS software has configurable parameters that allow you to defeat DoS attacks. For more information, see DoS Protection in the ExtremeXOS 21.1 User Guide.


Designated router. In OSPF, the DR generates an LSA for the multi-access network and has other special responsibilities in the running of the protocol. The DR is elected by the OSPF protocol.


Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum. A transmission technology used in Local Area Wireless Network (LAWN) transmissions where a data signal at the sending station is combined with a higher data rate bit sequence, or chipping code, that divides the user data according to a spreading ratio. The chipping code is a redundant bit pattern for each bit that is transmitted, which increases the signal's resistance to interference. If one or more bits in the pattern are damaged during transmission, the original data can be recovered due to the redundancy of the transmission. (Compare with FHSS.)


DTIM delivery traffic indication message (in 802.11 standard).

dynamic WEP

The IEEE introduced the concept of user-based authentication using per-user encryption keys to solve the scalability issues that surrounded static WEP. This resulted in the 802.1x standard, which makes use of the IETF's Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which was originally designed for user authentication in dial-up networks. The 802.1x standard supplemented the EAP protocol with a mechanism to send an encryption key to a Wireless AP. These encryption keys are used as dynamic WEP keys, allowing traffic to each individual user to be encrypted using a separate key.